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    • References
      Plant glutathione S-transferases: enzymes with multiple functions in sickness and health.  Edwards et al., TIPS 5, 3160-3185, 2000.
      Phi type GSTs are plant specific.
      The early responses of Arabidopsis thaliana cells to cadmium exposure explored by protein and metabolite profiling analyses. Sarry J. et al.,Proteomics 6, 2180-2198, 2006.
      GSTs Upregulated by Cd
      AGI code       Protein name
      At1g02920     GSTF7
      At2g30860     GSTF9
      At4g02520     GSTF2
      At5g48160     unknown
      At1g02930     GSTF6
       up-regulation of an APS was to be expected. PC synthesis and chelation of Cd2+ by GSH generate a strong sink for reduced sulphur. APSs catalyse the first step in S assimilation, the activation of sulphate. Up-regulation of APS transcript levels in the presence of Cd2+ has been found before (Heiss et al., 1999;Weber et al., 2006).
      An increase in glycine hydroxymethyltransferase abundance might represent a second direct consequence of activated PC synthesis as glycine is a component of PCs. In Cd2+-exposed A. thaliana cell cultures, a different isoform of this enzyme (At4g37930) is up-regulated (Sarry et al., 2006).
      Finally, three GSTs of the plant-specific phi class were more abundant under Cd2+ stress. They were each found in several positions on the 2D maps for crude extracts and for enriched fractions. This was also described by Sappl et al. (2004). GSTs are assumed to play a protective role against xenobiotics and oxidative stress. Transcript levels are typically up-regulated under various stress conditions (Dixon et al., 2002). Recent studies showed that the respective proteins are also more abundant (Sappl et al., 2004Smith et al., 2004). Interestingly, under conditions of Cu2+ excess, the exact same GSTs as identified in this study (AtGSTF2, AtGSTF6, and AtGSTF7) were more abundant in A. thalianaseedlings (Smith et al., 2004). The latter two were also identified in Cd2+-treated cell cultures (Sarry et al., 2006). Within the large GST family in A. thaliana, the identified proteins are encoded by genes which belong to the most highly expressed ones (Smith et al., 2004).
      other upregulated
      AGI code    Annotation                                                       Fold induction
      At3g22890   ATP sulphurylase, APS1                                                        2.2
      At4g02520   Atpm24.1 glutathione S-transferase, AtGSF2                                    2.0
      At4g02520   Atpm24.1 glutathione S-transferase, AtGSTF2                                   1.8
      At1g02920   Glutathione S-transferase, AtGSTF7                                            2.5
      At1g02930   Glutathione S-transferase, AtGSTF6                                            4.3
      At4g23670   Putative major latex protein, Bet v I, PR-10 family                           5.7
      At2g26560   Similar to latex allergen from Hevea brasiliensis, patatin-like phospholipase iwc
      At5g65140   Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase                                             1.7
      At1g13440   Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase                                      iwc
      At1g13440   Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase                                      iwc
      At5g57410   Unknown protein                                                               0.3
      At5g59190   Peptidase/subtilase                                                           iwc
      At1g36440   Hypothetical protein                                                          1.9
      At1g17290   Alanine transaminase (ALAAT1)                                                 1.3
      At5g64250   2-Nitropropane dioxygenase-like protein                                       1.8
      At1g17290   Alanine transaminase (ALAAT1)                                                 2.1
      At5g11170   DEAD box RNA helicase RH15-like                                               0.4
      At3g48670   Putative protein; MIPS: myosin heavy chain                                    5.
      At5g11670   NADP-dependent malic enzyme                                                   1.7
      At1g36370   Glycine hydroxymethyltransferase                                              3.0
      Book: Metal toxicity in Plants: Perception, Signaling, and Remediation
      Modulations of AtGSTF10 expression induce stress tolerance and BAK1-mediated cell death.

      Ryu HY, Kim SYPark HMYou JYKim BHLee JSNam KH 
      Division of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women's University, 53-12 Chungpa-dong 2ga, Yongsan-gu, Seoul 140-742, Republic of Korea.

      Glutathione-S-transferases are essential proteins involved in cellular detoxification. The expression of GSTs has been studied extensively under various environmental stressors including xenobiotics. Here, we have isolated AtGST10, one of the phi classes of AtGSTs on the basis of its interaction with BAK1 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. BAK1 is an LRR-RLK, acting in both brassinosteroid signaling and plant defense responses. We found that AtGSTF10 binds to BAK1 through its N-terminal domain. AtGSTF10 is expressed ubiquitously in plant tissues, and the endogenous transcript level of AtGSTF10 was not induced by plant growth regulators or abiotic stressors, except drought, unlike other GSTs. Overexpression of AtGSTF10 conferred higher tolerance to salt and disturbed redox status of transgenic plants. The down-regulation of AtGSTF10 produced by RNA interference caused reduced tolerance to abiotic stress and an accelerated senescence of transformants, indicating that AtGSTF10 is involved in stress tolerance and the BAK1-mediated spontaneous cell death signaling pathway inArabidopsis

      Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2009)
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