Was this page helpful?

Arsenic

    red references have not been checked

    As(V), arsenate, is an analog of phosphate and is taken up into plant roots by the high-affinity phosphate uptake system (Asher & Reay, 1979).  Arsenic can be toxic

    • directly (as As(V) ) by substituting for phosphate in phosphorylation reactions
    • after reduction to As(III), arsenite.  Arsenite is more toxic due to its high affinity for protein thiolds (Jocelyn, 1972).  Arsenite is also taken up directly via aquaglyceroporins( Meharg and Jardine, 2003; Wysocki et al., 2001)

    Arsenic tolerant plants often sho reduced As(V) uptake, but also accumulate arsenic in their tissues (De Koe, 1994), suggesting some kind of internal sequestration (Bleeker et at, 2006).

    • (Matthew, 2011) Arsenate is taken up via the P transporters in P. vittata (Wang et al., 2002)
    • (Matthews, 2011) The transporters involved in AsIII uptake are unknown in P. vittata, but research in a number of plants and microbes shows that AsIII is taken up via aquaglyceroporins (Meng et al., 2004; Isayenkov and Maathuis, 2008).  Note Meng reference is E. coli., Isayenkov is Arabidopsis, neither is Pteris.
    • (Matthews, 2011) I was able to take up both AsIII and AsV and translocated them from the roots to the fronds, and, regardless of arsenic species supplied, AsV dominated in the roots while AsIII dominated in the fronds. This would indicate the presence of an arsenite oxidizing enzyme in the roots, and arsenate reducing enzyme in the fronds of the fern.  Judging by fig 3-4, AS(III) is taken up much more rapidly and efficiently from the growth medium (which becomes totally As(III) depleted).
    • (Matthews, 2011) arsenate reductase and cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase from the fronds were previously implicated in arsenate reduction (Ellis et al., 2006; Rathinasabapathi et al., 2006), others have reported arsenate reductase activities in protein extracts from the roots with rhizomes (Duan et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2009).
    • (Matthews, 2011) Unlike other plants, hyperaccumulators of As contain AsIII as uncomplexed species due to low phytochelatin content in tissue (Raab et al., 2004). It is believed that P. vittata takes up AsIII and AsV by the roots (Wang et al., 2002; Fayiga et al., 2005), translocates AsIII and AsV from the roots to fronds (Kertulis-Tartar et al., 2005; Singh and Ma, 2006), reduces AsV to AsIII in the fronds (Bondada et al., 2004; Tu et al., 2004b), and transports AsIII into vacuoles for storage (Lombi et al., 2002).

    Detoxification (from Bleeker, 2006)

    • As(V) to As(III) reduction is essential.  As(III) can form complexes with low MW metal -binding thiol peptides such as glutathione (GSH) or phytochelatins (PCs).
    • transporters that move As from cytoplasm to vacuole use AS(III) as substrate as a tri-glutathione complex (Gosh et al., 1999; Rosen, 2002)
    • in plant cells non enzymatic reduction in plant cells is  slow, plant genomes contain a homolog to the yeast As(V) reductase, Acr2. Duan et al. (2005), demostarated enzymatic, i.e., non GSH dependent, reduction of As(V) in Pteris vittata roots.  Enzyme may be induced by exposure to As.
    • PCs are metal binding peptides:(gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n=2 to 11) synthesized from GSH by phytochelatin synthase, PCS, a gamma-glutamate-cysteine transpeptidase. Phytochelatin synthase-deficient Arabidopsis
      thaliana is hypersensitive to Cd, mercury (Hg) and As(V), showing that PCs are absolutely required for As(V) tolerance in this species (Ha et al., 1999; Howden et al., 1995).
    • Charge neutral,ATP-dependent and DpH-independent transport of the complex suggests transport via an ATP-binding cassette(-)type (ABC) transporter (Bleeker, 2006)

    Prediction(Bleeker, 2006)

    As tolerance should increase with
    • level of expression of As(V) reductase
    • increase in GSH
    • increased PC levels

    Acr2

    "rhodanese/Cdc25-like", homologs present in rice (OsAsr1, OsAsr2), arabidopsis (AtAsr), maize (ZmAsr), and velvetgrass (HlAsr)

    Acr3

    References

    • Asher, D.J. and Reay, P.F. (1979) Arsenic uptake by barley seedlings. J. Plant Physiol. 6, 459–466.
    • Bleeker (2006)
    • Duan, G., Y. Zhu, Y. Tong, C. Cai, and R. Kneer. 2005. Characterization of arsenate reductase in the extract of roots and fronds of Chinese Brake Fern, an arsenic hyperaccumulator. Plant Physiology 138:461-469
    • Ellis, D.R., L. Gumaelius, E. Indriolo, I.J. Pickering, J.A. Banks, and D.E. Salt. 2006. A novel arsenate reductase from the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata. Plant Physiology 141:1544-1554.
    • Isayenkov, S.V., and F.J.M. Maathuis. 2008. The Arabidopsis thaliana aquaglyceroporin AtNIP7;1 is a pathway for arsenite uptake. FEBS Letters 582:1625-1628.
    • Jocelyn, P.C. (1972) Biochemistry of the SH Group. London: Academic Press.
    • Matthews, S.  (2011) ARSENIC HYPERACCUMULATION BY PTERIS VITTATA L.- ARSENIC TRANSFORMATION, UPTAKE AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, Ph.D. thesis, Univeristy of Florida.
    • Meharg, A.A. and Jardine, L. (2003) Arsenite transport into paddy rice (Oryza sativa) roots. New Phytol. 157, 39–44.
    • Liu, Y., H.B. Wang, M.H. Wong, and Z.H. Ye. 2009. The role of arsenate reductase and superoxide dismutase in As accumulation in four Pteris speices. Environ Int 35:4.Meng, Y.-L., Z. Liu, and B.P. Rosen. 2004. AsIII and SbIII uptake by GlpF and efflux by ArsB in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 279:18334-18341.
    • Rathinasabapathi, B., S. Wu, S. Sundaram, J. Rivoal, M. Srivastava, and L.Q. Ma. 2006. Arsenic resistance in Pteris vittata L: identification of a cytosolic triosephosphate isomerase based on cDNA expression cloning in Escherichia coli. Plant Molecular Biology 62:845-857.
    • Wysocki, R., Chery, C.C., Wawrzycka, D., Van Hulle, M., Cornelis, R.,Thevelein, J.M. and Tamas, M.J. (2001) The glycerol channel Fps1p mediates the uptake of arsenite and antimonite in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Microb. 40, 1391–1401.
    • Wang, J., Z. F, M. AA, and R. A. 2002. Mechanisms of arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata: uptake kinetics, interactions with phosphate, and arsenic speciation. Plant Physiology 130:1552–1561.

     

    All pubmed As and Pteris

    1: Watanabe T, Kouho R, Katayose T, Kitajima N, Sakamoto N, Yamaguchi N, Shinano 
    T, Yurimoto H, Osaki M. Arsenic alters uptake and distribution of sulphur in
    Pteris vittata. Plant Cell Environ. 2013 Apr 23. doi: 10.1111/pce.12124. [Epub
    ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23611758.
    
    
    2: Lessl JT, Ma L. Sparingly-soluble phosphate rock induced significant plant
    growth and arsenic uptake by Pteris vittata from three contaminated soils.
    Environ Sci Technol. 2013 Apr 22. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23607730.
    
    
    3: Wu F, Deng D, Wu S, Lin X, Wong MH. Arsenic tolerance, uptake, and
    accumulation by nonmetallicolous and metallicolous populations of Pteris vittata 
    L. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013 Mar 14. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID:
    23494681.
    
    
    4: Müller K, Daus B, Mattusch J, Vetterlein D, Merbach I, Wennrich R. Impact of
    arsenic on uptake and bio-accumulation of antimony by arsenic hyperaccumulator
    Pteris vittata. Environ Pollut. 2013 Mar;174:128-33. doi:
    10.1016/j.envpol.2012.10.024. Epub 2012 Dec 17. PubMed PMID: 23257262.
    
    
    5: Lessl JT, Ma LQ, Rathinasabapathi B, Guy C. Novel Phytase from Pteris vittata 
    Resistant to Arsenate, High Temperature, and Soil Deactivation. Environ Sci
    Technol. 2013 Feb 20. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23379685.
    
    
    6: Hue NV. Arsenic chemistry and remediation in Hawaiian soils. Int J
    Phytoremediation. 2013;15(2):105-16. PubMed PMID: 23487989.
    
    
    7: Wan XM, Lei M, Liu YR, Huang ZC, Chen TB, Gao D. A comparison of arsenic
    accumulation and tolerance among four populations of Pteris vittata from habitats
    with a gradient of arsenic concentration. Sci Total Environ. 2013 Jan
    1;442:143-51. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.056. Epub 2012 Nov 22. PubMed
    PMID: 23178774.
    
    
    8: Mandal A, Purakayastha TJ, Patra AK, Sanyal SK. Phytoremediation of arsenic
    contaminated soil by Pteris vittata L. I. Influence of phosphatic fertilizers and
    repeated harvests. Int J Phytoremediation. 2012 Dec;14(10):978-95. PubMed PMID:
    22908659.
    
    
    9: Wei C, Zheng H, Yu J. Arsenic in the rhizosphere soil solution of ferns. Int J
    Phytoremediation. 2012 Dec;14(10):950-65. PubMed PMID: 22908657.
    
    
    10: Gonzaga MI, Ma LQ, Pacheco EP, dos Santos WM. Predicting arsenic
    bioavailability to hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata in arsenic-contaminated soils.
    Int J Phytoremediation. 2012 Dec;14(10):939-49. PubMed PMID: 22908656.
    
    
    11: Wang X, Rathinasabapathi B, de Oliveira LM, Guilherme LR, Ma LQ.
    Bacteria-mediated arsenic oxidation and reduction in the growth media of arsenic 
    hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Oct
    16;46(20):11259-66. doi: 10.1021/es300454b. Epub 2012 Oct 4. PubMed PMID:
    22994133.
    
    
    12: Forino LM, Ruffini Castiglione M, Bartoli G, Balestri M, Andreucci A,
    Tagliasacchi AM. Arsenic-induced morphogenic response in roots of arsenic
    hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata. J Hazard Mater. 2012 Oct 15;235-236:271-8. 
    doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.07.051. Epub 2012 Aug 6. PubMed PMID: 22906843.
    
    
    13: Niazi NK, Singh B, Van Zwieten L, Kachenko AG. Phytoremediation of an
    arsenic-contaminated site using Pteris vittata L. and Pityrogramma calomelanos
    var. austroamericana: a long-term study. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012
    Sep;19(8):3506-15. doi: 10.1007/s11356-012-0910-4. Epub 2012 Apr 22. PubMed PMID:
    22529007.
    
    
    14: Mandal A, Purakayastha TJ, Patra AK, Sanyal SK. Phytoremediation of arsenic
    contaminated soil by Pteris vittata L. II. Effect on arsenic uptake and rice
    yield. Int J Phytoremediation. 2012 Jul;14(6):621-8. PubMed PMID: 22908631.
    
    
    15: Yan X, Zhang M, Liao X, Tu S. Influence of amendments on soil arsenic
    fractionation and phytoavailability by Pteris vittata L. Chemosphere. 2012
    Jun;88(2):240-4. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.03.015. Epub 2012 Mar 29. PubMed
    PMID: 22463947.
    
    
    16: Niazi NK, Kachenko AG. Letter to the editor regarding, "first evidence on
    different transportation modes of arsenic and phosphorus in arsenic
    hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata" by Lei et al. (2012). Environ Pollut. 2012
    Jun;165:167; author reply 168. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.11.031. Epub 2011 Dec
    9. PubMed PMID: 22169523.
    
    
    17: Drava G, Roccotiello E, Minganti V, Manfredi A, Cornara L. Effects of cadmium
    and arsenic on Pteris vittata under hydroponic conditions. Environ Toxicol Chem. 
    2012 Jun;31(6):1375-80. doi: 10.1002/etc.1835. Epub 2012 May 1. PubMed PMID:
    22505316.
    
    
    18: Lei M, Wan XM, Huang ZC, Chen TB, Li XW, Liu YR. First evidence on different 
    transportation modes of arsenic and phosphorus in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris
    vittata. Environ Pollut. 2012 Feb;161:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.09.017.
    Epub 2011 Oct 21. PubMed PMID: 22230060.
    
    
    19: Yang Q, Tu S, Wang G, Liao X, Yan X. Effectiveness of applying arsenate
    reducing bacteria to enhance arsenic removal from polluted soils by Pteris
    vittata L. Int J Phytoremediation. 2012 Jan;14(1):89-99. PubMed PMID: 22567697.
    
    
    20: de la Paix MJ, Lanhai L, de Dieu HJ, John MN. Plant algae method for arsenic 
    removal from arsenic contaminated groundwater. Water Sci Technol.
    2012;65(5):927-31. doi: 10.2166/wst.2012.875. PubMed PMID: 22339029.
    
    
    21: Wei C, Deng Q, Wu F, Fu Z, Xu L. Arsenic, antimony, and bismuth uptake and
    accumulation by plants in an old antimony mine, China. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011 
    Dec;144(1-3):1150-8. doi: 10.1007/s12011-011-9017-x. Epub 2011 Mar 10. PubMed
    PMID: 21547400.
    
    
    22: Sun L, Yan X, Liao X, Wen Y, Chong Z, Liang T. Interactions of arsenic and
    phenanthrene on their uptake and antioxidative response in Pteris vittata L.
    Environ Pollut. 2011 Dec;159(12):3398-405. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.08.045.
    Epub 2011 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 21924806.
    
    
    23: Mathews S, Rathinasabapathi B, Ma LQ. Uptake and translocation of arsenite by
    Pteris vittata L.: effects of glycerol, antimonite and silver. Environ Pollut.
    2011 Dec;159(12):3490-5. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.08.027. Epub 2011 Sep 3.
    PubMed PMID: 21893373.
    
    
    24: Ye WL, Khan MA, McGrath SP, Zhao FJ. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated
    paddy soils with Pteris vittata markedly reduces arsenic uptake by rice. Environ 
    Pollut. 2011 Dec;159(12):3739-43. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.07.024. Epub 2011
    Aug 15. PubMed PMID: 21840633.
    
    
    25: Huang Y, Hatayama M, Inoue C. Characterization of As efflux from the roots of
    As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. Planta. 2011 Dec;234(6):1275-84. doi:
    10.1007/s00425-011-1480-2. Epub 2011 Jul 26. PubMed PMID: 21789508.
    
    
    26: Wang X, Ma LQ, Rathinasabapathi B, Cai Y, Liu YG, Zeng GM. Mechanisms of
    efficient arsenite uptake by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. Environ Sci
    Technol. 2011 Nov 15;45(22):9719-25. doi: 10.1021/es2018048. Epub 2011 Oct 26.
    PubMed PMID: 22029254.
    
    
    27: Raj A, Pandey AK, Sharma YK, Khare PB, Srivastava PK, Singh N. Metabolic
    adaptation of Pteris vittata L. gametophyte to arsenic induced oxidative stress. 
    Bioresour Technol. 2011 Oct;102(20):9827-32. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.08.017.
    Epub 2011 Aug 10. PubMed PMID: 21875791.
    
    
    28: Ghosh P, Rathinasabapathi B, Ma LQ. Arsenic-resistant bacteria solubilized
    arsenic in the growth media and increased growth of arsenic hyperaccumulator
    Pteris vittata L. Bioresour Technol. 2011 Oct;102(19):8756-61. doi:
    10.1016/j.biortech.2011.07.064. Epub 2011 Jul 24. PubMed PMID: 21840210.
    
    
    29: Niazi NK, Singh B, Van Zwieten L, Kachenko AG. Phytoremediation potential of 
    Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana and Pteris vittata L. grown at a
    highly variable arsenic contaminated site. Int J Phytoremediation. 2011
    Oct;13(9):912-32. PubMed PMID: 21972513.
    
    
    30: Kumari A, Lal B, Pakade YB, Chand P. Assessment of bioaccumulation of heavy
    metal by Pteris vittata L. growing in the vicinity of fly ash. Int J
    Phytoremediation. 2011 Sep;13(8):779-87. PubMed PMID: 21972518.
    
    
    31: Bona E, Marsano F, Massa N, Cattaneo C, Cesaro P, Argese E, Sanità di Toppi
    L, Cavaletto M, Berta G. Proteomic analysis as a tool for investigating arsenic
    stress in Pteris vittata roots colonized or not by arbuscular mycorrhizal
    symbiosis. J Proteomics. 2011 Aug 12;74(8):1338-50. doi:
    10.1016/j.jprot.2011.03.027. Epub 2011 Mar 30. PubMed PMID: 21457805.
    
    
    32: Kříbek B, Mihaljevič M, Sracek O, Knésl I, Ettler V, Nyambe I. The extent of 
    arsenic and of metal uptake by aboveground tissues of Pteris vittata and Cyperus 
    involucratus growing in copper- and cobalt-rich tailings of the Zambian
    copperbelt. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011 Aug;61(2):228-42. doi:
    10.1007/s00244-010-9604-4. Epub 2010 Oct 15. PubMed PMID: 20949352.
    
    
    33: Lee SJ, Lee JP. Effect of arsenic absorption on the water-refilling speed of 
    Pteris cretica. Microsc Res Tech. 2011 Jun;74(6):517-22. doi: 10.1002/jemt.20941.
    Epub 2010 Oct 8. PubMed PMID: 20936675.
    
    
    34: Diaz-Bone RA, Raabe M, Awissus S, Keuter B, Menzel B, Küppers K, Widmann R,
    Hirner AV. Investigation of biomethylation of arsenic and tellurium during
    composting. J Hazard Mater. 2011 May 30;189(3):653-9. doi:
    10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.12.011. Epub 2010 Dec 10. PubMed PMID: 21354698.
    
    
    35: Hatayama M, Sato T, Shinoda K, Inoue C. Effects of cultivation conditions on 
    the uptake of arsenite and arsenic chemical species accumulated by Pteris vittata
    in hydroponics. J Biosci Bioeng. 2011 Mar;111(3):326-32. doi:
    10.1016/j.jbiosc.2010.11.004. Epub 2010 Dec 24. PubMed PMID: 21185228.
    
    
    36: Anh BT, Kim DD, Tua TV, Kien NT, Anh do T. Phytoremediation potential of
    indigenous plants from Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. J Environ Biol. 2011
    Mar;32(2):257-62. PubMed PMID: 21882664.
    
    
    37: Nguyen TH, Sakakibara M, Sano S, Mai TN. Uptake of metals and metalloids by
    plants growing in a lead-zinc mine area, Northern Vietnam. J Hazard Mater. 2011
    Feb 28;186(2-3):1384-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.12.020. Epub 2010 Dec 14.
    PubMed PMID: 21227580.
    
    
    38: Anderson LL, Walsh M, Roy A, Bianchetti CM, Merchan G. The potential of
    Thelypteris palustris and Asparagus sprengeri in phytoremediation of arsenic
    contamination. Int J Phytoremediation. 2011 Feb;13(2):177-84. PubMed PMID:
    21598785.
    
    
    39: Tu S, Ma L, Rathinasabapathi B. Characterization of phytase from three ferns 
    with differing arsenic tolerance. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011 Feb;49(2):146-50.
    doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2010.11.004. Epub 2010 Nov 12. PubMed PMID: 21131209.
    
    
    40: Natarajan S, Stamps RH, Ma LQ, Saha UK, Hernandez D, Cai Y, Zillioux EJ.
    Phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated groundwater using arsenic
    hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.: effects of frond harvesting regimes and
    arsenic levels in refill water. J Hazard Mater. 2011 Jan 30;185(2-3):983-9. doi: 
    10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.10.002. Epub 2010 Oct 8. PubMed PMID: 21051137.
    
    
    41: Singh N, Raj A, Khare PB, Tripathi RD, Jamil S. Arsenic accumulation pattern 
    in 12 Indian ferns and assessing the potential of Adiantum capillus-veneris, in
    comparison to Pteris vittata, as arsenic hyperaccumulator. Bioresour Technol.
    2010 Dec;101(23):8960-8. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.06.116. Epub 2010 Jul 22.
    PubMed PMID: 20655204.
    
    
    42: Sakai Y, Watanabe T, Wasaki J, Senoura T, Shinano T, Osaki M. Influence of
    arsenic stress on synthesis and localization of low-molecular-weight thiols in
    Pteris vittata. Environ Pollut. 2010 Dec;158(12):3663-9. doi:
    10.1016/j.envpol.2010.07.043. Epub 2010 Sep 6. PubMed PMID: 20822837.
    
    
    43: Xiong J, Wu L, Tu S, Van Nostrand JD, He Z, Zhou J, Wang G. Microbial
    communities and functional genes associated with soil arsenic contamination and
    the rhizosphere of the arsenic-hyperaccumulating plant Pteris vittata L. Appl
    Environ Microbiol. 2010 Nov;76(21):7277-84. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00500-10. Epub 2010 
    Sep 10. PubMed PMID: 20833780; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2976218.
    
    
    44: Mathews S, Ma LQ, Rathinasabapathi B, Natarajan S, Saha UK. Arsenic
    transformation in the growth media and biomass of hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata
    L. Bioresour Technol. 2010 Nov;101(21):8024-30. doi:
    10.1016/j.biortech.2010.05.042. Epub 2010 Jun 20. PubMed PMID: 20566284.
    
    
    45: Bona E, Cattaneo C, Cesaro P, Marsano F, Lingua G, Cavaletto M, Berta G.
    Proteomic analysis of Pteris vittata fronds: two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
    differentially modulate protein expression under arsenic contamination.
    Proteomics. 2010 Nov;10(21):3811-34. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200900436. PubMed PMID:
    20957753.
    
    
    46: Leung HM, Wu FY, Cheung KC, Ye ZH, Wong MH. Synergistic effects of arbuscular
    mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate rock on heavy metal uptake and accumulation by an
    arsenic hyperaccumulator. J Hazard Mater. 2010 Sep 15;181(1-3):497-507. doi:
    10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.05.042. Epub 2010 May 16. PubMed PMID: 20541316.
    
    
    47: Santos JA, Gonzaga MI, Ma LQ. Optimum P levels for arsenic removal from
    contaminated groundwater by Pteris vittata L. of different ages. J Hazard Mater. 
    2010 Aug 15;180(1-3):662-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.04.087. Epub 2010 Apr 28.
    PubMed PMID: 20488614.
    
    
    48: Potera C. The gene behind arsenic hyperaccumulation. Environ Health Perspect.
    2010 Aug;118(8):a337. doi: 10.1289/ehp.118-a337. PubMed PMID: 20675258; PubMed
    Central PMCID: PMC2920104.
    
    
    49: Lou LQ, Ye ZH, Lin AJ, Wong MH. Interaction of arsenic and phosphate on their
    uptake and accumulation in Chinese brake fern. Int J Phytoremediation. 2010
    Jul;12(5):487-502. doi: 10.1080/15226510903051732. PubMed PMID: 21166290.
    
    
    50: Indriolo E, Na G, Ellis D, Salt DE, Banks JA. A vacuolar arsenite transporter
    necessary for arsenic tolerance in the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris
    vittata is missing in flowering plants. Plant Cell. 2010 Jun;22(6):2045-57. doi: 
    10.1105/tpc.109.069773. Epub 2010 Jun 8. PubMed PMID: 20530755; PubMed Central
    PMCID: PMC2910956.
    
    
    51: Wei S, Ma LQ, Saha U, Mathews S, Sundaram S, Rathinasabapathi B, Zhou Q.
    Sulfate and glutathione enhanced arsenic accumulation by arsenic hyperaccumulator
    Pteris vittata L. Environ Pollut. 2010 May;158(5):1530-5. doi:
    10.1016/j.envpol.2009.12.024. Epub 2009 Dec 31. PubMed PMID: 20045235.
    
    
    52: Srivastava M, Santos J, Srivastava P, Ma LQ. Comparison of arsenic
    accumulation in 18 fern species and four Pteris vittata accessions. Bioresour
    Technol. 2010 Apr;101(8):2691-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.11.070. Epub 2009
    Dec 30. PubMed PMID: 20044253.
    
    
    53: Leung HM, Wu FY, Cheung KC, Ye ZH, Wong MH. The effect of arbuscular
    mycorrhizal fungi and phosphate amendement on arsenic uptake, accumulation and
    growth of Pteris vittata in As-contaminated soil. Int J Phytoremediation. 2010
    Apr-Jun;12(4):384-403. doi: 10.1080/15226510903051740. PubMed PMID: 20734915.
    
    
    54: Kashiwabara T, Mitsuo S, Hokura A, Kitajima N, Abe T, Nakai I. In vivo micro 
    X-ray analysis utilizing synchrotron radiation of the gametophytes of three
    arsenic accumulating ferns, Pteris vittata L., Pteris cretica L. and Athyrium
    yokoscense, in different growth stages. Metallomics. 2010 Apr;2(4):261-70. doi:
    10.1039/b922866g. Epub 2010 Jan 21. PubMed PMID: 21069168.
    
    
    55: Huang A, Teplitski M, Rathinasabapathi B, Ma L. Characterization of
    arsenic-resistant bacteria from the rhizosphere of arsenic hyperaccumulator
    Pteris vittata. Can J Microbiol. 2010 Mar;56(3):236-46. doi: 10.1139/w10-005.
    PubMed PMID: 20453910.
    
    
    56: Cao X, Ma L, Shiralipour A, Harris W. Biomass reduction and arsenic
    transformation during composting of arsenic-rich hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata 
    L. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2010 Mar;17(3):586-94. doi:
    10.1007/s11356-009-0204-7. Epub 2009 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 19517152.
    
    
    57: Zhao GC, Liao XY, Yan XL, Zhu GH, Tu SX, Li SY, Wang Y. [Enhancement of
    As-accumulation by Pteris vittata L. affected by microorganisms]. Huan Jing Ke
    Xue. 2010 Feb;31(2):431-6. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 20391714.
    
    
    58: Xu W, Kachenko AG, Singh B. Effect of soil properties on arsenic
    hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata and Pityrogramma calomelanos var.
    austroamericana. Int J Phytoremediation. 2010 Feb;12(2):174-87. PubMed PMID:
    20734614.
    
    
    59: Ebbs S, Hatfield S, Nagarajan V, Blaylock M. A comparison of the dietary
    arsenic exposures from ingestion of contaminated soil and hyperaccumulating
    Pteris ferns used in a residential phytoremediation project. Int J
    Phytoremediation. 2010 Jan;12(1):121-32. PubMed PMID: 20734633.
    
    
    60: Wan XM, Lei M, Huang ZC, Chen TB, Liu YR. Sexual propagation of Pteris
    vittata L. influenced by pH, calcium, and temperature. Int J Phytoremediation.
    2010 Jan;12(1):85-95. PubMed PMID: 20734630.
    
    
    61: Sundaram S, Rathinasabapathi B. Transgenic expression of fern Pteris vittata 
    glutaredoxin PvGrx5 in Arabidopsis thaliana increases plant tolerance to high
    temperature stress and reduces oxidative damage to proteins. Planta. 2010
    Jan;231(2):361-9. doi: 10.1007/s00425-009-1055-7. Epub 2009 Nov 21. PubMed PMID: 
    19936779.
    
    
    62: Yong JW, Tan SN, Ng YF, Low KK, Peh SF, Chua JC, Lim AA. Arsenic
    hyperaccumulation by Pteris vittata and Pityrogramma calomelanos: a comparative
    study of uptake efficiency in arsenic-treated soils and waters. Water Sci
    Technol. 2010;61(12):3041-9. doi: 10.2166/wst.2010.223. PubMed PMID: 20555200.
    
    
    63: Yan XL, Liao XY, Chen TB. Leaching potential of arsenic from Pteris vittata
    L. under field conditions. Sci Total Environ. 2009 Dec 20;408(2):425-30. doi:
    10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.035. Epub 2009 Oct 22. PubMed PMID: 19850320.
    
    
    64: Xie QE, Yan XL, Liao XY, Li X. The arsenic hyperaccumulator fern Pteris
    vittata L. Environ Sci Technol. 2009 Nov 15;43(22):8488-95. doi:
    10.1021/es9014647. PubMed PMID: 20028042.
    
    
    65: Lou LQ, Ye ZH, Wong MH. A comparison of arsenic tolerance, uptake and
    accumulation between arsenic hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata L. and
    non-accumulator, P. semipinnata L.--a hydroponic study. J Hazard Mater. 2009 Nov 
    15;171(1-3):436-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.020. Epub 2009 Jun 12. PubMed 
    PMID: 19577839.
    
    
    66: Vetterlein D, Wesenberg D, Nathan P, Bräutigam A, Schierhorn A, Mattusch J,
    Jahn R. Pteris vittata - revisited: uptake of As and its speciation, impact of P,
    role of phytochelatins and S. Environ Pollut. 2009 Nov;157(11):3016-24. doi:
    10.1016/j.envpol.2009.05.057. Epub 2009 Jun 27. PubMed PMID: 19560846.
    
    
    67: Kertulis-Tartar GM, Rathinasabapathi B, Ma LQ. Characterization of
    glutathione reductase and catalase in the fronds of two Pteris ferns upon arsenic
    exposure. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2009 Oct;47(10):960-5. doi:
    10.1016/j.plaphy.2009.05.009. Epub 2009 Jun 12. PubMed PMID: 19574057.
    
    
    68: Wu FY, Ye ZH, Wong MH. Intraspecific differences of arbuscular mycorrhizal
    fungi in their impacts on arsenic accumulation by Pteris vittata L. Chemosphere. 
    2009 Aug;76(9):1258-64. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.05.020. Epub 2009 Jun 16.
    PubMed PMID: 19535126.
    
    
    69: Singh N, Ma LQ, Vu JC, Raj A. Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in
    arsenic hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating ferns. Environ Pollut. 2009
    Aug-Sep;157(8-9):2300-5. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2009.03.036. Epub 2009 Apr 29.
    PubMed PMID: 19406540.
    
    
    70: Wu FY, Leung HM, Wu SC, Ye ZH, Wong MH. Variation in arsenic, lead and zinc
    tolerance and accumulation in six populations of Pteris vittata L. from China.
    Environ Pollut. 2009 Aug-Sep;157(8-9):2394-404. doi:
    10.1016/j.envpol.2009.03.022. Epub 2009 Apr 15. PubMed PMID: 19371990.
    
    
    71: Gonzaga MI, Ma LQ, Santos JA, Matias MI. Rhizosphere characteristics of two
    arsenic hyperaccumulating Pteris ferns. Sci Total Environ. 2009 Aug
    1;407(16):4711-6. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.04.037. Epub 2009 May 24. PubMed 
    PMID: 19476972.
    
    
    72: Sundaram S, Wu S, Ma LQ, Rathinasabapathi B. Expression of a Pteris vittata
    glutaredoxin PvGRX5 in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana increases plant arsenic
    tolerance and decreases arsenic accumulation in the leaves. Plant Cell Environ.
    2009 Jul;32(7):851-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2009.01963.x. Epub 2009 Feb 19.
    PubMed PMID: 19236608.
    
    
    73: Müller K, Daus B, Mattusch J, Stärk HJ, Wennrich R. Simultaneous
    determination of inorganic and organic antimony species by using anion exchange
    phases for HPLC-ICP-MS and their application to plant extracts of Pteris vittata.
    Talanta. 2009 May 15;78(3):820-6. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2008.12.059. Epub 2009
    Jan 15. PubMed PMID: 19269435.
    
    
    74: Shelmerdine PA, Black CR, McGrath SP, Young SD. Modelling phytoremediation by
    the hyperaccumulating fern, Pteris vittata, of soils historically contaminated
    with arsenic. Environ Pollut. 2009 May;157(5):1589-96. doi:
    10.1016/j.envpol.2008.12.029. Epub 2009 Jan 25. PubMed PMID: 19171413.
    
    
    75: Zhu YG, Rosen BP. Perspectives for genetic engineering for the
    phytoremediation of arsenic-contaminated environments: from imagination to
    reality? Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2009 Apr;20(2):220-4. doi:
    10.1016/j.copbio.2009.02.011. Epub 2009 Mar 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 19303764.
    
    
    76: Liu Y, Wang HB, Wong MH, Ye ZH. The role of arsenate reductase and superoxide
    dismutase in As accumulation in four Pteris species. Environ Int. 2009
    Apr;35(3):491-5. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2008.07.012. Epub 2008 Sep 14. PubMed
    PMID: 18793802.
    
    
    77: Srivastava M, Ma LQ, Rathinasabapathi B, Srivastava P. Effects of selenium on
    arsenic uptake in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. Bioresour Technol.
    2009 Feb;100(3):1115-21. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2008.08.026. Epub 2008 Sep 26.
    PubMed PMID: 18823776.
    
    
    78: Chen J, Shiyab S, Han FX, Monts DL, Waggoner CA, Yang Z, Su Y.
    Bioaccumulation and physiological effects of mercury in Pteris vittata and
    Nephrolepis exaltata. Ecotoxicology. 2009 Jan;18(1):110-21. doi:
    10.1007/s10646-008-0264-3. Epub 2008 Sep 3. PubMed PMID: 18766440.
    
    
    79: Zheng Y, Dai X, Wang L, Xu W, He Z, Ma M. Arsenate reduces copper
    phytotoxicity in gametophytes of Pteris vittata. J Plant Physiol. 2008
    Dec;165(18):1906-16. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2008.04.008. Epub 2008 Jun 6. PubMed
    PMID: 18538893.
    
    
    80: Liao XY, Chen TB, Yan XL, Xie H, Xiao XY, Zhai LM. [Effects of different
    forms of P fertilizers on phytoremediation for As-contaminated soils using
    As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. 2008 Oct;29(10):2906-11.
    Chinese. PubMed PMID: 19143393.
    
    
    81: Sarangi BK, Chakrabarti T. Characterization of an ecotype of brake-fern,
    Pteris vittata, for arsenic tolerance and accumulation in plant biomass. Tsitol
    Genet. 2008 Sep-Oct;42(5):16-31. PubMed PMID: 19140437.
    
    
    82: Huang ZC, Chen TB, Lei M, Liu YR, Hu TD. Difference of toxicity and
    accumulation of methylated and inorganic arsenic in arsenic-hyperaccumulating and
    -hypertolerant plants. Environ Sci Technol. 2008 Jul 15;42(14):5106-11. PubMed
    PMID: 18754355.
    
    
    83: Santos JA, Gonzaga MI, Ma LQ, Srivastava M. Timing of phosphate application
    affects arsenic phytoextraction by Pteris vittata L. of different ages. Environ
    Pollut. 2008 Jul;154(2):306-11. Epub 2007 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 18045757.
    
    
    84: Gonzaga MI, Santos JA, Ma LQ. Phytoextraction by arsenic hyperaccumulator
    Pteris vittata L. from six arsenic-contaminated soils: Repeated harvests and
    arsenic redistribution. Environ Pollut. 2008 Jul;154(2):212-8. Epub 2007 Nov 26. 
    PubMed PMID: 18037547.
    
    
    85: Natarajan S, Stamps RH, Saha UK, Ma LQ. Phytofiltration of
    arsenic-contaminated groundwater using Pteris vittata L.: effect of plant density
    and nitrogen and phosphorus levels. Int J Phytoremediation. 2008
    May-Jun;10(3):220-33. PubMed PMID: 18710097.
    
    
    86: Sundaram S, Rathinasabapathi B, Ma LQ, Rosen BP. An arsenate-activated
    glutaredoxin from the arsenic hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata L. regulates
    intracellular arsenite. J Biol Chem. 2008 Mar 7;283(10):6095-101. Epub 2007 Dec
    23. PubMed PMID: 18156657.
    
    
    87: Yan XL, Chen TB, Liao XY, Huang ZC, Pan JR, Hu TD, Nie CJ, Xie H. Arsenic
    transformation and volatilization during incineration of the hyperaccumulator
    Pteris vittata L. Environ Sci Technol. 2008 Mar 1;42(5):1479-84. PubMed PMID:
    18441791.
    
    
    88: Koller CE, Patrick JW, Rose RJ, Offler CE, MacFarlane GR. Arsenic and heavy
    metal accumulation by Pteris vittata L. and P. umbrosa R. Br. Bull Environ Contam
    Toxicol. 2008 Feb;80(2):128-33. doi: 10.1007/s00128-007-9330-4. Epub 2008 Jan 9. 
    PubMed PMID: 18183339.
    
    
    89: Du X, Cui Y, Weng L, Cao Q, Zhu Y. Arsenic bioavailability in the soil
    amended with leaves of arsenic hyperaccumulator, Chinese brake fern (Pteris
    vittata L). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2008 Jan;27(1):126-30. PubMed PMID: 18092848.
    
    
    90: Shoji R, Yajima R, Yano Y. Arsenic speciation for the phytoremediation by the
    Chinese brake fern, Pteris vittata. J Environ Sci (China). 2008;20(12):1463-8.
    PubMed PMID: 19209633.
    
    
    91: Xiao X, Chen T, An Z, Lei M, Huang Z, Liao X, Liu Y. Potential of Pteris
    vittata L. for phytoremediation of sites co-contaminated with cadmium and
    arsenic: the tolerance and accumulation. J Environ Sci (China). 2008;20(1):62-7. 
    PubMed PMID: 18572524.
    
    
    92: Su YH, McGrath SP, Zhu YG, Zhao FJ. Highly efficient xylem transport of
    arsenite in the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. New Phytol.
    2008;180(2):434-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02584.x. Epub 2008 Jul 25.
    PubMed PMID: 18662326.
    
    
    93: Wu FY, Ye ZH, Wu SC, Wong MH. Metal accumulation and arbuscular mycorrhizal
    status in metallicolous and nonmetallicolous populations of Pteris vittata L. and
    Sedum alfredii Hance. Planta. 2007 Nov;226(6):1363-78. Epub 2007 Jul 12. PubMed
    PMID: 17624548.
    
    
    94: Yang X, Chen H, Xu W, He Z, Ma M. Hyperaccumulation of arsenic by callus,
    sporophytes and gametophytes of Pteris vittata cultured in vitro. Plant Cell Rep.
    2007 Oct;26(10):1889-97. Epub 2007 Jun 23. PubMed PMID: 17589853.
    
    
    95: Lou LQ, Ye ZH, Wong MH. Solubility and accumulation of metals in Chinese
    brake fern, vetiver and rostrate sesbania using chelating agents. Int J
    Phytoremediation. 2007 Jul-Aug;9(4):325-43. doi: 10.1080/15226510701475778.
    PubMed PMID: 18246709.
    
    
    96: Liao XY, Chen TB, Xiao XY, Xie H, Yan XL, Zhai LM, Wu B. Selecting
    appropriate forms of nitrogen fertilizer to enhance soil arsenic removal by
    Pteris vittata: a new approach in phytoremediation. Int J Phytoremediation. 2007 
    Jul-Aug;9(4):269-80. doi: 10.1080/15226510701473724. PubMed PMID: 18246706.
    
    
    97: Wei CY, Wang C, Sun X, Wang WY. Arsenic accumulation by ferns: a field survey
    in southern China. Environ Geochem Health. 2007 Jun;29(3):169-77. Epub 2007 Jan
    26. PubMed PMID: 17256100.
    
    
    98: Fayiga AO, Ma LQ, Zhou Q. Effects of plant arsenic uptake and heavy metals on
    arsenic distribution in an arsenic-contaminated soil. Environ Pollut. 2007
    Jun;147(3):737-42. Epub 2006 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 17129648.
    
    
    99: Wei CY, Zhang ZY. Multivariate analysis of elements in Chinese brake fern as 
    determined using neutron activation analysis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007
    Mar;115(3):277-90. PubMed PMID: 17625248.
    
    
    100: Koller CE, Patrick JW, Rose RJ, Offler CE, MacFarlane GR. Pteris umbrosa R. 
    Br. as an arsenic hyperaccumulator: accumulation, partitioning and comparison
    with the established As hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. Chemosphere. 2007
    Jan;66(7):1256-63. Epub 2006 Aug 28. PubMed PMID: 16934852.
    
    
    101: Leung HM, Ye ZH, Wong MH. Survival strategies of plants associated with
    arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on toxic mine tailings. Chemosphere. 2007
    Jan;66(5):905-15. Epub 2006 Jul 26. PubMed PMID: 16872660.
    
    
    102: Wang HB, Wong MH, Lan CY, Baker AJ, Qin YR, Shu WS, Chen GZ, Ye ZH. Uptake
    and accumulation of arsenic by 11 Pteris taxa from southern China. Environ
    Pollut. 2007 Jan;145(1):225-33. Epub 2006 Jun 13. PubMed PMID: 16777301.
    
    
    103: Ampiah-Bonney RJ, Tyson JF, Lanza GR. Phytoextraction of arsenic from soil
    by Leersia oryzoides. Int J Phytoremediation. 2007 Jan-Feb;9(1):31-40. doi:
    10.1080/15226510601139383. PubMed PMID: 18246713.
    
    
    104: Huang ZC, An ZZ, Chen TB, Lei M, Xiao XY, Liao XY. Arsenic uptake and
    transport of Pteris vittata L. as influenced by phosphate and inorganic arsenic
    species under sand culture. J Environ Sci (China). 2007;19(6):714-8. PubMed PMID:
    17969645.
    
    
    105: Rathinasabapathi B, Rangasamy M, Froeba J, Cherry RH, McAuslane HJ, Capinera
    JL, Srivastava M, Ma LQ. Arsenic hyperaccumulation in the Chinese brake fern
    (Pteris vittata) deters grasshopper (Schistocerca americana) herbivory. New
    Phytol. 2007;175(2):363-9. PubMed PMID: 17587384.
    
    
    106: Rathinasabapathi B, Wu S, Sundaram S, Rivoal J, Srivastava M, Ma LQ. Arsenic
    resistance in Pteris vittata L.: identification of a cytosolic triosephosphate
    isomerase based on cDNA expression cloning in Escherichia coli. Plant Mol Biol.
    2006 Dec;62(6):845-57. Epub 2006 Aug 29. PubMed PMID: 16941209.
    
    
    107: Trotta A, Falaschi P, Cornara L, Minganti V, Fusconi A, Drava G, Berta G.
    Arbuscular mycorrhizae increase the arsenic translocation factor in the As
    hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata L. Chemosphere. 2006 Sep;65(1):74-81. Epub 
    2006 Apr 5. PubMed PMID: 16603227.
    
    
    108: Silva Gonzaga MI, Santos JA, Ma LQ. Arsenic chemistry in the rhizosphere of 
    Pteris vittata L. and Nephrolepis exaltata L. Environ Pollut. 2006
    Sep;143(2):254-60. Epub 2006 Jan 25. PubMed PMID: 16442683.
    
    
    109: Pickering IJ, Gumaelius L, Harris HH, Prince RC, Hirsch G, Banks JA, Salt
    DE, George GN. Localizing the biochemical transformations of arsenate in a
    hyperaccumulating fern. Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Aug 15;40(16):5010-4. PubMed
    PMID: 16955900.
    
    
    110: Ellis DR, Gumaelius L, Indriolo E, Pickering IJ, Banks JA, Salt DE. A novel 
    arsenate reductase from the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris vittata. Plant 
    Physiol. 2006 Aug;141(4):1544-54. Epub 2006 Jun 9. PubMed PMID: 16766666; PubMed 
    Central PMCID: PMC1533930.
    
    
    111: Rathinasabapathi B, Raman SB, Kertulis G, Ma L. Arsenic-resistant
    proteobacterium from the phyllosphere of arsenic-hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris
    vittata L.) reduces arsenate to arsenite. Can J Microbiol. 2006
    Jul;52(7):695-700. PubMed PMID: 16917527.
    
    
    112: Srivastava M, Ma LQ, Santos JA. Three new arsenic hyperaccumulating ferns.
    Sci Total Environ. 2006 Jul 1;364(1-3):24-31. Epub 2005 Dec 20. PubMed PMID:
    16371231.
    
    
    113: Wei CY, Sun X, Wang C, Wang WY. Factors influencing arsenic accumulation by 
    Pteris vittata: a comparative field study at two sites. Environ Pollut. 2006
    Jun;141(3):488-93. Epub 2005 Oct 19. PubMed PMID: 16236410.
    
    
    114: Wei CY, Chen TB. Arsenic accumulation by two brake ferns growing on an
    arsenic mine and their potential in phytoremediation. Chemosphere. 2006
    May;63(6):1048-53. Epub 2005 Nov 17. PubMed PMID: 16297966.
    
    
    115: Singh N, Ma LQ. Arsenic speciation, and arsenic and phosphate distribution
    in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. and non-hyperaccumulator Pteris
    ensiformis L. Environ Pollut. 2006 May;141(2):238-46. Epub 2005 Oct 27. PubMed
    PMID: 16257102.
    
    
    116: Fayiga AO, Ma LQ. Using phosphate rock to immobilize metals in soil and
    increase arsenic uptake by hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata. Sci Total Environ.
    2006 Apr 15;359(1-3):17-25. Epub 2005 Jun 27. PubMed PMID: 15985282.
    
    
    117: Chen BD, Zhu YG, Smith FA. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on 
    uranium and arsenic accumulation by Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) from a
    uranium mining-impacted soil. Chemosphere. 2006 Mar;62(9):1464-73. Epub 2005 Aug 
    9. PubMed PMID: 16084565.
    
    
    118: An ZZ, Huang ZC, Lei M, Liao XY, Zheng YM, Chen TB. Zinc tolerance and
    accumulation in Pteris vittata L. and its potential for phytoremediation of Zn-
    and As-contaminated soil. Chemosphere. 2006 Feb;62(5):796-802. Epub 2005 Jun 28. 
    PubMed PMID: 15987653.
    
    
    119: Li WX, Chen TB, Huang ZC, Lei M, Liao XY. Effect of arsenic on chloroplast
    ultrastructure and calcium distribution in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris
    vittata L. Chemosphere. 2006 Feb;62(5):803-9. Epub 2005 Jun 21. PubMed PMID:
    15972226.
    
    
    120: Leung HM, Ye ZH, Wong MH. Interactions of mycorrhizal fungi with Pteris
    vittata (As hyperaccumulator) in As-contaminated soils. Environ Pollut. 2006
    Jan;139(1):1-8. Epub 2005 Jul 20. PubMed PMID: 16039023.
    
    
    121: Kertulis-Tartar GM, Ma LQ, Tu C, Chirenje T. Phytoremediation of an
    arsenic-contaminated site using Pteris vittata L.: a two-year study. Int J
    Phytoremediation. 2006;8(4):311-22. PubMed PMID: 17305305.
    
    
    122: Wang HB, Ye ZH, Shu WS, Li WC, Wong MH, Lan CY. Arsenic uptake and
    accumulation in fern species growing at arsenic-contaminated sites of southern
    China: field surveys. Int J Phytoremediation. 2006;8(1):1-11. Erratum in: Int J
    Phytoremediation. 2006;8(2):185. PubMed PMID: 16615304.
    
    
    123: Rozas MA, Alkorta I, Garbisu C. Phytoextraction and phytofiltration of
    arsenic. Rev Environ Health. 2006 Jan-Mar;21(1):43-56. Review. PubMed PMID:
    16700429.
    
    
    124: Dong R. Molecular cloning and characterization of a phytochelatin synthase
    gene, PvPCS1, from Pteris vittata L. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005
    Dec;32(11-12):527-33. Epub 2005 May 26. Erratum in: J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol.
    2005 Aug;32(8):382. Schiavo, Fiorella Lo [removed]; Formentin, Elide [removed];
    Losseso, Carmen [removed]; Carimi, Francesco [removed]; Benedetti, Piero
    [removed]; Terzi, Mario [removed]. PubMed PMID: 15918023.
    
    
    125: Al Agely A, Sylvia DM, Ma LQ. Mycorrhizae increase arsenic uptake by the
    hyperaccumulator Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.). J Environ Qual. 2005 Nov
    7;34(6):2181-6. Print 2005 Nov-Dec. PubMed PMID: 16275719.
    
    
    126: Liu YR, Chen TB, Huang ZC, Liao XY. [As-hyperaccumulation of Pteris vittata 
    L. as influenced by as concentrations in soils of contaminated fields]. Huan Jing
    Ke Xue. 2005 Sep;26(5):181-6. Chinese. PubMed PMID: 16366495.
    
    
    127: Su Y, Han FX, Sridhar BB, Monts DL. Phytotoxicity and phytoaccumulation of
    trivalent and hexavalent chromium in brake fern. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2005
    Aug;24(8):2019-26. PubMed PMID: 16152975.
    
    
    128: Tu C, Ma LQ. Effects of arsenic on concentration and distribution of
    nutrients in the fronds of the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. Environ
    Pollut. 2005 May;135(2):333-40. PubMed PMID: 15734593.
    
    
    129: Srivastava M, Ma LQ, Singh N, Singh S. Antioxidant responses of
    hyper-accumulator and sensitive fern species to arsenic. J Exp Bot. 2005
    May;56(415):1335-42. Epub 2005 Mar 21. PubMed PMID: 15781440.
    
    
    130: Liu Y, Zhu YG, Chen BD, Christie P, Li XL. Influence of the arbuscular
    mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae on uptake of arsenate by the As
    hyperaccumulator fern Pteris vittata L. Mycorrhiza. 2005 May;15(3):187-92. Epub
    2004 Aug 7. PubMed PMID: 15309589.
    
    
    131: Duan GL, Zhu YG, Tong YP, Cai C, Kneer R. Characterization of arsenate
    reductase in the extract of roots and fronds of Chinese brake fern, an arsenic
    hyperaccumulator. Plant Physiol. 2005 May;138(1):461-9. Epub 2005 Apr 15. PubMed 
    PMID: 15834011; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1104199.
    
    
    132: Li W, Chen T, Chen Y, Lei M. Role of trichome of Pteris vittata L. in
    arsenic hyperaccumulation. Sci China C Life Sci. 2005 Apr;48(2):148-54. PubMed
    PMID: 15986887.
    
    
    133: Caille N, Zhao FJ, McGrath SP. Comparison of root absorption, translocation 
    and tolerance of arsenic in the hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata and the
    nonhyperaccumulator Pteris tremula. New Phytol. 2005 Mar;165(3):755-61. PubMed
    PMID: 15720686.
    
    
    134: Chen T, Huang Z, Huang Y, Lei M. Distributions of arsenic and essential
    elements in pinna of arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. Sci China C Life 
    Sci. 2005 Feb;48(1):18-24. PubMed PMID: 15844353.
    
    
    135: Fayiga AO, Ma LQ, Santos J, Rathinasabapathi B, Stamps B, Littell RC.
    Effects of arsenic species and concentrations on arsenic accumulation by
    different fern species in a hydroponic system. Int J Phytoremediation.
    2005;7(3):231-40. PubMed PMID: 16285413.
    
    
    136: Ouyang Y. Phytoextraction: simulating uptake and translocation of arsenic in
    a soil-plant system. Int J Phytoremediation. 2005;7(1):3-17. PubMed PMID:
    15943240.
    
    
    137: Fayiga AO, Ma LQ, Cao X, Rathinasabapathi B. Effects of heavy metals on
    growth and arsenic accumulation in the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L.
    Environ Pollut. 2004 Nov;132(2):289-96. PubMed PMID: 15312941.
    
    
    138: Caille N, Swanwick S, Zhao FJ, McGrath SP. Arsenic hyperaccumulation by
    Pteris vittata from arsenic contaminated soils and the effect of liming and
    phosphate fertilisation. Environ Pollut. 2004 Nov;132(1):113-20. PubMed PMID:
    15276279.
    
    
    139: Zhang W, Cai Y, Downum KR, Ma LQ. Thiol synthesis and arsenic
    hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern). Environ Pollut. 2004
    Oct;131(3):337-45. PubMed PMID: 15261396.
    
    
    140: Gumaelius L, Lahner B, Salt DE, Banks JA. Arsenic hyperaccumulation in
    gametophytes of Pteris vittata. A new model system for analysis of arsenic
    hyperaccumulation. Plant Physiol. 2004 Oct;136(2):3198-208. Epub 2004 Sep 24.
    PubMed PMID: 15448194; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC523379.
    
    
    141: Poynton CY, Huang JW, Blaylock MJ, Kochian LV, Elless MP. Mechanisms of
    arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris species: root As influx and translocation.
    Planta. 2004 Oct;219(6):1080-8. Epub 2004 Jun 18. PubMed PMID: 15221388.
    
    
    142: Bondada BR, Tu S, Ma LQ. Absorption of foliar-applied arsenic by the arsenic
    hyperaccumulating fern (Pteris vittata L.). Sci Total Environ. 2004 Oct
    1;332(1-3):61-70. PubMed PMID: 15336891.
    
    
    143: Alkorta I, Hernández-Allica J, Garbisu C. Plants against the global epidemic
    of arsenic poisoning. Environ Int. 2004 Sep;30(7):949-51. Review. PubMed PMID:
    15196843.
    
    
    144: Zhang W, Cai Y, Downum KR, Ma LQ. Arsenic complexes in the arsenic
    hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (Chinese brake fern). J Chromatogr A. 2004 Jul
    23;1043(2):249-54. PubMed PMID: 15330099.
    
    
    145: Huang JW, Poynton CY, Kochian LV, Elless MP. Phytofiltration of arsenic from
    drinking water using arsenic-hyperaccumulating ferns. Environ Sci Technol. 2004
    Jun 15;38(12):3412-7. PubMed PMID: 15260342.
    
    
    146: Cai Y, Su J, Ma LQ. Low molecular weight thiols in arsenic hyperaccumulator 
    Pteris vittata upon exposure to arsenic and other trace elements. Environ Pollut.
    2004 May;129(1):69-78. PubMed PMID: 14749071.
    
    
    147: Huang Z, Chen T, Lei M, Hu T, Huang Q. EXAFS study on arsenic species and
    transformation in arsenic hyperaccumulator. Sci China C Life Sci. 2004
    Apr;47(2):124-9. PubMed PMID: 15379244.
    
    
    148: Raab A, Feldmann J, Meharg AA. The nature of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes
    in Holcus lanatus and Pteris cretica. Plant Physiol. 2004 Mar;134(3):1113-22.
    Epub 2004 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 15001701; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC389935.
    
    
    149: Cao X, Ma LQ, Tu C. Antioxidative responses to arsenic in the
    arsenic-hyperaccumulator Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.). Environ Pollut. 
    2004;128(3):317-25. PubMed PMID: 14720474.
    
    
    150: Tu S, Ma LQ, Fayiga AO, Zillioux EJ. Phytoremediation of
    arsenic-contaminated groundwater by the arsenic hyperaccumulating fern Pteris
    vittata L. Int J Phytoremediation. 2004;6(1):35-47. PubMed PMID: 15224774.
    
    
    151: Minganti V, Cornara L, Piana M, Corallo A, Mariotti MG. Arsenic
    biomonitoring using a hyperaccumulator fern (Pteris vittata). J Environ Monit.
    2004 Jan;6(1):23-5. Epub 2003 Dec 3. PubMed PMID: 14737466.
    
    
    152: Zhang W, Cai Y. Purification and characterization of thiols in an arsenic
    hyperaccumulator under arsenic exposure. Anal Chem. 2003 Dec 15;75(24):7030-5.
    PubMed PMID: 14670068.
    
    
    153: Fitz WJ, Wenzel WW, Zhang H, Nurmi J, Stipek K, Fischerova Z, Schweiger P,
    Köllensperger G, Ma LQ, Stingeder G. Rhizosphere characteristics of the arsenic
    hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. and monitoring of phytoremoval efficiency.
    Environ Sci Technol. 2003 Nov 1;37(21):5008-14. PubMed PMID: 14620831.
    
    
    154: Webb SM, Gaillard JF, Ma LQ, Tu C. XAS speciation of arsenic in a
    hyper-accumulating fern. Environ Sci Technol. 2003 Feb 15;37(4):754-60. PubMed
    PMID: 12636275.
    
    
    155: Cao X, Ma LQ, Shiralipour A. Effects of compost and phosphate amendments on 
    arsenic mobility in soils and arsenic uptake by the hyperaccumulator, Pteris
    vittata L. Environ Pollut. 2003;126(2):157-67. PubMed PMID: 12927487.
    
    
    156: Tu C, Ma LQ, Zhang W, Cai Y, Harris WG. Arsenic species and leachability in 
    the fronds of the hyperaccumulator Chinese brake (Pteris vittata L.). Environ
    Pollut. 2003;124(2):223-30. PubMed PMID: 12713922.
    
    
    157: Salido AL, Hasty KL, Lim JM, Butcher DJ. Phytoremediation of arsenic and
    lead in contaminated soil using Chinese brake ferns (Pteris vittata) and Indian
    mustard (Brassica juncea). Int J Phytoremediation. 2003;5(2):89-103. PubMed PMID:
    12929493.
    
    
    158: Wongkongkatep J, Fukushi K, Parkpian P, DeLaune RD, Jugsujinda A. Arsenic
    uptake by native fern species in Thailand: effect of chelating agents on
    hyperaccumulation of arsenic by Pityrogramma calomelanos. J Environ Sci Health A 
    Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2003;38(12):2773-84. PubMed PMID: 14672315.
    
    
    159: Zhang W, Cai Y, Tu C, Ma LQ. Arsenic speciation and distribution in an
    arsenic hyperaccumulating plant. Sci Total Environ. 2002 Dec 2;300(1-3):167-77.
    PubMed PMID: 12685480.
    
    
    160: Wang J, Zhao FJ, Meharg AA, Raab A, Feldmann J, McGrath SP. Mechanisms of
    arsenic hyperaccumulation in Pteris vittata. Uptake kinetics, interactions with
    phosphate, and arsenic speciation. Plant Physiol. 2002 Nov;130(3):1552-61. PubMed
    PMID: 12428020; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC166674.
    
    
    161: Tu C, Ma LQ, Bondada B. Arsenic accumulation in the hyperaccumulator Chinese
    brake and its utilization potential for phytoremediation. J Environ Qual. 2002
    Sep-Oct;31(5):1671-5. PubMed PMID: 12371185.
    
    
    162: Tu C, Ma LQ. Effects of arsenic concentrations and forms on arsenic uptake
    by the hyperaccumulator ladder brake. J Environ Qual. 2002 Mar-Apr;31(2):641-7.
    PubMed PMID: 11931457.
    
    
    163: Visoottiviseth P, Francesconi K, Sridokchan W. The potential of Thai
    indigenous plant species for the phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated land.
    Environ Pollut. 2002;118(3):453-61. PubMed PMID: 12009144.

     

    Was this page helpful?
    Tag page (Edit tags)
    • No tags
    You must login to post a comment.